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    Verifying and Validating Simulations
    (2017) David,Nuno; Fachada,Nuno; Rosa,Agostinho C.; Escola de Comunicação, Arquitetura, Artes e Tecnologias da Informação
    Verification and validation are two important aspects of model building. Verification and validation compare models with observations and descriptions of the problem modelled, which may include other models that have been verified and validated to some level. However, the use of simulation for modelling social complexity is very diverse. Often, verification and validation do not refer to an explicit stage in the simulation development process, but to the modelling process itself, according to good practices and in a way that grants credibility to using the simulation for a specific purpose. One cannot consider verification and validation without considering the purpose of the simulation. This chapter deals with a comprehensive outline of methodological perspectives and practical uses of verification and validation. The problem of evaluating simulations is addressed in four main topics: (1) the meaning of the terms verification and validation in the context of simulating social complexity; (2) types of validation, as well as techniques for validating simulations; (3) model replication and comparison as cornerstones of verification and validation; and (4) the relationship of various validation types and techniques with different modelling strategies.